This "killer" should be vigilant in winter
Release time: 2018-12-26
The temperature drops sharply, heating in winter, many people use various methods to warm in confined spaces. As a result, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the room is high, which can easily cause carbon monoxide poisoning. The kitchen and the shower of the gas water heater are the hardest hit areas, invisible, terrible winter killer, and carbon monoxide is much more protective.
Carbon monoxide (ie CO) is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas. When the CO concentration in the air reaches 12.5%, there is a danger of explosion. The CO content in the gas produced by the coal furnace can be as high as 6% to 30%. Indoor doors and windows are tightly closed, there is no chimney in the stove, or the chimney is clogged, air leakage, reverse air, and the use of gas heater showers in poorly ventilated bathrooms can cause CO poisoning. The CO concentration in the air at the fire site can be as high as 10%, and poisoning can also occur. The combination of CO and hemoglobin will form carboxyhemoglobin, which will cause the hemoglobin to lose its oxygen carrying capacity, hinder the discharge of tissue carbon dioxide, and cause hypoxia in the whole body tissues.
According to the severity of symptoms, we can divide CO poisoning into three types: mild and moderate:
1. Mild poisoning: the poisoning time is short, and the carboxyhemoglobin in the blood is 10% to 20%. The symptoms are early symptoms of poisoning, headache, dizziness, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, weakness of limbs, and even short-term fainting. The general consciousness is still sober. After breathing in fresh air, the symptoms disappear quickly after leaving the poisoning environment.
2. Moderate poisoning: The poisoning takes a little longer, and the carboxyhemoglobin in the blood accounts for 30% to 40%. On the basis of mild symptoms, collapse or coma may occur. The skin and mucous membranes present a cherry red characteristic of gas poisoning. If the rescue is timely, you can quickly wake up and recover completely within a few days, usually without sequelae.
3. Severe poisoning: The patient showed moderate and severe coma. His face is flushed, his breathing is light and fast, there is snoring, and there are vomites around his mouth, or white, bloody foam, fast pulse, unconsciousness, orbital reflex and corneal reflex weakening or disappearing as the coma deepens. Tonic spasms of the extremities and incontinence.
CO poisoning treatment steps
1. Pre-hospital treatment:
On-site treatment: quickly correct the hypoxic state. Enter the poisoning site and quickly open the doors and windows to ventilate and ventilate, cut off the gas source, quickly rescue the patient, set a fresh air place, let it breathe fresh air, treat symptomatically, etc. Take the supine position for the comatose patient, unbutton the clothes button, loosen the belt, keep the airway open, and keep warm at the same time. If breathing has stopped, first aid should be given immediately.
2. Emergency treatment:
Accelerate CO emission, improve the body's hypoxia, and the corresponding emergency treatment measures: oxygen inhalation, infusion, intracranial pressure reduction, blood volume expansion, etc. to support treatment and control infections, to prevent complications.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy:
3. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy:
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is performed at the same time as emergency treatment at the site, because the higher the arterial oxygen partial pressure, the faster the dissociation of carboxyhemoglobin, and the faster CO emission, so the treatment of CO poisoning using hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the first choice and is life-saving , The key to reducing complications, the length of treatment and stress depends on the severity of the disease and the time of CO exposure.
How to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning
1. There should be extensive publicity about the safety settings (such as chimneys, small ventilation windows, wind tunnels, etc.) when using coal fire indoors.
2. Do not use obsolete water heaters; do not use overdue service water heaters; it is best to ask a professional to install the water heater, and it is not allowed to install, dismantle or modify the burning appliances by yourself. Do not close the bathroom doors and windows when showering in winter, and do not take too long.
3. It is recommended that you learn about the knowledge and precautions of preventing carbon monoxide poisoning, and carry out exercises of on-site rescue methods for patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.
4. Install a carbon monoxide alarm in a place where carbon monoxide may be generated.